Even Hippocrates he considered it to be healthier than bread made with coarsely ground and not sifted flour, so rich in bran (as we can find nowadays among those made with ancient grains). Thus, the most famous doctor of ancient Greece was perhaps the first supporter of the insertion in the diet of the dietary fiber (generically known in the plural fibers). In fact, they were snubbed until the end of the seventies and revalued only in the last decades: now it is even said that those who eat wholemeal come to a hundred …
Not exactly nutritious (as are sugars, fats, proteins, vitamins and salts), fiber he does not bring anything, why it is not absorbed by the organism and, consequently, it has no calories. Transit and away. But not without consequences. This has to do especially with the composition, which determines the way in which it affects the intestine, our 'second brain', and consequently on the whole organism.
What is it about
The right thing would be to talk about fibers, in the plural. In fact there are different types, composed mainly of glucose substances (but different from the starches) of vegetable origin, which are not "attacked" by the enzymes present in the stomach and, therefore, are indigestible.
Two categories: insoluble is soluble. They are part of the first group, for example, the cellulose and the lignin, prevalent in vegetables and whole grains. Among the soluble we find the tires, le mucilage and the pectin, which abounds above all in fruit and vegetables.
Both types interact, albeit in a different way, with water, forming compounds that regulate intestinal activity, reduce the absorption of fats and sugars (soluble) and decrease the contact time between the digestive waste substances and the walls of the intestine (the insolubles), among other things preventing degenerative diseases of this stretch.
The satiating power
The fibers are massive: then, satiate. At the same weight, a wholemeal sandwich takes more than one white hunger. Not only that: as we explained, not being digested fibers do not actually provide calories. This means that the wholemeal sandwich, composed partly of fiber, will have an energy supply of around 220 calories per 100g, against 270-280 of michette, slippers and company.
A fortiori they satiate without putting at risk the weight "fibrous" foods such as fruits and vegetables as much as possible whole (for example, do not peel): that's why eating an apple before lunch or open the menu with a bowl of mixed salad helps to continue the meal containing portions.
Finally, foods rich in fiber must be chewed a long time: this not only increases the sense of satiety, but stimulates it production of gastric juices, which facilitate digestion.
These prodigious substances really are handy. In fact, they abound in many foods of plant origin.
Cereals. Among those in beans, wins thebarley that touches 10g of fiber per 100g. Follow the wheat hard and soft (9.7-9.8 g), the spelled (6.8 g) and the buckwheat, which contains about 6 g.
legumes. Those dry, such as chickpeas is lentils, are around 14 g of fibers per 100 g, which are close to 18 g in cannellini and borlotti dried and exceed 20 g in the case of Fava beans. Borlotti and beans fresh on average they contain 5-6 g of fiber per liter.
Vegetables. Tomatoes, leeks, fennel, champignon and porcini mushrooms, agretti, asparagus, beetroot, turnip greens, broccoli, cauliflower, carrots, green cabbage, savoy cabbage, turnips, spinach, eggplant and ripe tomatoes: they all attest to 2-2.5 g of fibers per hectare of raw vegetables. They arrive at 3 g chicory and i red radicchio, even at 5 g per 100 g artichokes.
Fresh fruit. Among the most common, the best ones are revealed pears with their almost 4 g of fiber per pound, while peaches, bananas, figs, kiwis, persimmons, mandarins and apples contain around 2-2.5 g (but the quinces, rich in pectins, almost reach 6). Excellent i raspberries (even 7.4 g) followed by blackberries is blueberries (both around 3 g). Among the Mediterranean fruits richer in fiber appears the prickly pear (5 g / 100 g), while among the exotic ones stands out the passion fruit (well 13.9 g) and are interesting theavocado (3.3 g) and la pomegranate (2.2 g). The chestnutsfinally, they have about 5 g of fibers per pound.
Dried fruits. Also because of the loss of water, it is all very rich in fibers (but pay attention to the calories!). Between that in shell, notable almonds (12.7 g per 100 g), peanuts and pistachios (10-11 g), macadamia nuts, pecans and hazelnuts (8-9 g). Between that soft, dates close to 9 g per ounce, figs reach 13 g, apples to 12.5 g, prunes to about 8.5 g. The sample is the coconut which, in the dried version, contains as much as 13.7 g of fibers per pound.
(Source Crea, click here).
Supplements: normally they are not needed
An annoying constipation, the desire to lose a few extra pounds, the need to lower cholesterol after poorly comforting blood tests: three examples of how you can try the way offiber supplement. Often with excessive ease.
The experts agree that one varied and rich diet of the foods listed until now enough to make the necessary fibers for a healthy adult, quantified in 30-35 g per day.
Only in special cases it may be useful to resort to supplements, as long as they are consult with a specialist in nutrition or with the attending physician.
Important, in the first place, the dosage. In fact, it means going to meet various kinds of illness, especially in the intestine (from abdominal cramps to diarrhea).
Furthermore, we risk the malabsorption of all nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals, especially calcium, iron, selenium and zinc) and even of some drugs.
Another common mistake, if you use supplements, is do not drink enough: as clearly indicated on the label, tablets and preparations should be taken with a large glass of water (at least 250 m) and in general they should drink around the 2 liters a day, advice useful for anyone who follows a diet rich in fiber. Otherwise the risk, in this case, is of worsen the symptoms intestinal.
In this regard it is useful to remember that the bran of wheat brings fiber to the 40% of its weight and it is therefore to be used with care, as a full-fledged integrator.
As usual, in short, just a pinch of common sense to follow a diet as much as possible complete and balanced and make full – also – of fibers: not properly nutritious, but always precious.
updated February 2019
from Aurora Quinto
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