the rules to follow and the mistakes to avoid – Italian Cuisine

the rules to follow and the mistakes to avoid

From powdered yeast to the mother's yeast, from flours to water, all you need to know to get perfect leavened products

The leavened dough they are a great test for all kitchen and bakery enthusiasts in particular.
Are there any rules? Are there any mistakes to avoid? Of the tricks to get a perfect leavening?
We explain everything to you.

Types of leavening

Let's start from the basics to understand which and how many types of leavening exist.
IS chemistry leavening from instant chemical yeast powder and occurs by joining an acid and an alkaline element. This is essentially a chemical reaction to heat.
Then there is leavening microbiological which happens using brewer's yeast, fresh or dehydrated, or mother yeast. The micro-organisms present in the yeast, feeding on flour, reproduce by increasing the dough.
Finally the leavening physics it is the one without yeast and it is not a real leavening. It is the one that is obtained by adding to a dough, usually based on egg yolks and flour whipped egg whites.

The yeast

It seems obvious, but it is also very important to talk about the main ingredient of a leavened dough: yeast.
It can be beer or mother yeast, powder or fresh, the important thing is to use it well.
The mother yeast requires some care because it must be refreshed frequently to stay alive and allows to obtain more digestible doughs, compact and soft at the same time and more resistant to time.
Brewer's yeast, on the other hand, causes dough to rise faster making them very tall and soft, but it is less resistant to time after cooking. A bread made with brewer's yeast remains fresh and fragrant for less time than one made with yeast.
The sourdough must be freshened before use otherwise it will have an acid taste and smell.
The yeast instead of beer must be dissolved in warm water and not hot otherwise it does not act and can be activated with sugar or honey.
The baking powder should not be dissolved in water and can be added directly to the flour.


Always use good quality flours and mix them if necessary.
Very often it is proposed in the recipes Manitoba flour also known as American flour that is very refined and subtle and therefore suitable for leavened dough.
Be careful not to abuse it, because it tends to soften the dough too much and if you want a minimum of crunchiness you have to mix it well with less refined flours.
There 00 flour, also this very refined and low in gluten, should not be used alone, but always with flour with the highest protein index to allow the formation of a stronger glutinic mesh able to withstand the yeast's thrust without yielding.
Very risky preparing dough leavened only with wholemeal flours, always mix them with lighter flours if you want to obtain a perfect leavening.


It is important in leavening even if it is dosed carefully because it can also counteract it.
When cooking bread, it allows you to obtain a crispy outer crust with respect to the inside that remains softer.
Always add it at the end and away from yeast and sugar.

The water

Let's talk about water, but in reality of all the liquids that are used in leavened doughs, therefore also the milk.
Add them little by little until you reach the right consistency.
Some doughs must remain very soft and almost difficult to work with hands, while others require less liquids.
But if you want to get a very soft pizza with a long leavening then use a lot of water, about 300 ml per 500 grams of flour and then let the dough rise in the refrigerator covered with the film for at least 12 hours.

Browse now the gallery to find out the 5 most serious mistakes to avoid to obtain a perfect leavening.

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